Commit 10767d22 authored by Grzegorz Daniluk's avatar Grzegorz Daniluk

BE seminar 2019: WR intro slides

parent 7a8ae7cb
all : wr_intro_2019.pdf
.PHONY : all clean
wr_intro_2019.pdf : wr_intro_2019.tex
pdflatex $^
pdflatex $^
clean :
rm -f *.eps *.pdf *.dat *.log *.out *.aux *.dvi *.ps *.nav *.snm *.toc *.vrb *~
\documentclass[compress, red]{beamer}
\mode<presentation>
\usepackage{etex}
\setbeamertemplate{navigation symbols}{}
\usetheme{Warsaw}
% define your own colors:
\definecolor{Red}{rgb}{1,0,0}
\definecolor{Blue}{rgb}{0,0,1}
\definecolor{Green}{rgb}{0,1,0}
\definecolor{magenta}{rgb}{1,0,.6}
\definecolor{lightblue}{rgb}{0,.5,1}
\definecolor{lightpurple}{rgb}{.6,.4,1}
\definecolor{gold}{rgb}{.6,.5,0}
\definecolor{orange}{rgb}{1,0.4,0}
\definecolor{hotpink}{rgb}{1,0,0.5}
\definecolor{newcolor2}{rgb}{.5,.3,.5}
\definecolor{newcolor}{rgb}{0,.3,1}
\definecolor{newcolor3}{rgb}{1,0,.35}
\definecolor{darkgreen1}{rgb}{0, .35, 0}
\definecolor{darkgreen}{rgb}{0, .6, 0}
\definecolor{darkred}{rgb}{.75,0,0}
\xdefinecolor{olive}{cmyk}{0.64,0,0.95,0.4}
\xdefinecolor{purpleish}{cmyk}{0.75,0.75,0,0}
\useoutertheme[subsection=false]{smoothbars}
% include packages
\usepackage{subfigure}
\usepackage{multicol}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{epsfig}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage[all]{xy}
%\xyoption{arc}
\usepackage{url}
\usepackage{multimedia}
\usepackage{hyperref}
\usepackage{helvet}
\usepackage[english]{babel}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{changepage}
\usepackage{textcomp}
\newcommand{\backupbegin}{
\newcounter{framenumberappendix}
\setcounter{framenumberappendix}{\value{framenumber}}
}
\newcommand{\backupend}{
\addtocounter{framenumberappendix}{-\value{framenumber}}
\addtocounter{framenumber}{\value{framenumberappendix}}
}
\graphicspath{ {../../figures/} }
\usepackage[font=small,skip=0pt]{caption}
\captionsetup{labelformat=empty,labelsep=none}
%\setlength{\abovecaptionskip}{5pt plus 3pt minus 2pt}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Title Page Info %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\title[White Rabbit\hspace{19em}\insertframenumber/\inserttotalframenumber]{Introduction to White Rabbit}
\author[Greg Daniluk, Maciej Lipi\'{n}ski]{Greg Daniluk, Maciej Lipi\'{n}ski}
\institute{CERN BE-CO\\Hardware and Timing section}
\date{\vspace{0.5cm}\\ BE seminar\\{\small 15 November 2019}}
\pgfdeclareimage[height=0.6cm]{wr-logo}{logo/WRlogo.pdf}
\logo{\pgfuseimage{wr-logo}}
\AtBeginSection[]
{
\begin{frame}<beamer>{Outline}
\tableofcontents[currentsection]
\end{frame}
}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Begin Your Document %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{document}
\frame{\titlepage}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}<beamer>{Outline}
\tableofcontents
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Introduction}
\subsection{}
%=======================
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{What is White Rabbit?}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{columns}[c]
\column{0.65\textwidth}
\footnotesize
\begin{itemize}
\item<1-> Initiated to renovate CERN's control \& timing
\item<2-> Based on well-established standards
\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
\item <3->Ethernet \textcolor{gray}{(IEEE 802.3)}
\item <3->Bridged Local Area Network \textcolor{gray}{(IEEE 802.1Q)}
\item <4->Precision Time Protocol \textcolor{gray}{(IEEE 1588)}
\end{itemize}
\item<6->Extends standards to provide
\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
\item \color{blue!90}{\textbf{Sub-ns synchronisation}}
\item \color{red}{Deterministic data transfer}
\end{itemize}
\item<7-> Initial specs: links $\leq$10~km \& $\leq$2000 nodes
% \item<7-> Initial network specification:
% \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
% \item Fiber links length: $\leq$10~km
% \item Number of nodes: $\leq$2000
% \end{itemize}
\item<8-> \textbf{Open Source and commercially available}
% \item<9-> Many users worldwide, inc. metrology labs...
\end{itemize}
\textcolor{white}{dddd dsaf asd fasd fdsa fads f dsa fdsa f dsaf dsa fdsa f dsaf dsaf fds}
\column{0.55\textwidth}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics<1-2>[height=0.7\textheight]{p1588/PTPv3_blank.jpg}
\includegraphics<3>[height=0.7\textheight]{misc/LAN.jpg}
\includegraphics<4>[height=0.7\textheight]{misc/ieee-1588-ptp-example.jpg}
\includegraphics<5>[height=0.7\textheight]{network/WR_network-ethernet.pdf}
\includegraphics<6->[height=0.7\textheight]{network/wr_network-enhanced_pro_without_10km.pdf}
\end{center}
\end{columns}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Many users worldwide, including metrology labs...}
\footnotesize
\begin{columns}[c]
\column{0.72\textwidth}
\begin{itemize}
\item<1-> \color<2->{black!50}{CERN and GSI}
\item<2-> \color<3->{black!50}{The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory}
\item<3-> \color<4->{black!50}{KM3NET: Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope}
\item<4-> \color<5->{black!50}{German Stock Exchange}
\item<5-> \color<7->{black!50}{Mikes: Finish Metrology Institute}
\item<6-> \color<7->{black!50}{Metrology Institutes in Netherlands (VSL), \\France (LNE-SYRTE), USA (NIST), UK (NPL) and\\Italy (INRIM)} %and Belgium (SMD)
\item<7-> ESA: European Space Agency for Galileo
\end{itemize}
\column{0.45\textwidth}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics<1>[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/gsiANDcern.pdf}
\includegraphics<2>[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/lhaaso-v2.jpg}
\includegraphics<3>[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/KM3NeT-v2.jpg}
\includegraphics<4>[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/GermanStockExchange-v2.jpg}
\includegraphics<5>[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/finland-2.jpg}
\includegraphics<6>[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/TimeLabs.png}
\includegraphics<7->[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/ESA-galileo.jpg}
\end{center}
\end{columns}
\pause\pause\pause\pause\pause\pause\pause
{\scriptsize See user page: \url{http://www.ohwr.org/projects/white-rabbit/wiki/WRUsers}}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Technology}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{White Rabbit technology - sub-ns synchronisation}
\begin{block}{Based on}
\begin{itemize}
\item Gigabit Ethernet over fibre
\item IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\pause
\begin{block}{Enhanced with}
\begin{itemize}
\item Layer 1 syntonisation
\item Digital Dual Mixer Time Difference (DDMTD)
\item Link delay model
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Ethernet network in a nutshell}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics<1->[width=.3\textheight]{misc/home_switch.png}
\includegraphics<1->[width=.7\textheight]{misc/prof_switch.png}
\includegraphics<1>[width=.8\textwidth]{misc/switch_in_nutshell_mac.pdf}
\includegraphics<2>[width=.8\textwidth]{misc/switch_in_nutshell_1-2_mac.pdf}
\includegraphics<3>[width=.8\textwidth]{misc/switch_in_nutshell_1-3_mac.pdf}
\includegraphics<4>[width=.8\textwidth]{misc/switch_in_nutshell_1-2_3-1_mac.pdf}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Precision Time Protocol (IEEE 1588)}
\begin{columns}[c]
\column{.4\textwidth}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics<1>[height=5cm]{protocol/ptp_exchange-enhanced.jpg}
\includegraphics<2->[height=4cm]{protocol/ptpNetwork.jpg}
\end{center}
\column{.75\textwidth}
\begin{itemize}
\item Frame-based synchronisation protocol
\item Simple calculations:
\begin{itemize}
\item link delay: $\delta_{ms} = \frac{(t_{4}-t_{1}) - (t_{3}-t_{2})}{2}$
\item offset from master: $OFM = t_{2} - (t_{1} + \delta_{ms})$
\end{itemize}
\item<2-> Hierarchical network
\item<3-> Shortcomings:
\begin{itemize}
\item devices have free-running oscillators
\item frequency drift compensation vs. message exchange traffic
\item assumes symmetry of medium
\item timestamps resolution
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\end{columns}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Layer 1 Syntonisation}
\begin{itemize}\small
\item Clock is encoded in the Ethernet carrier and recovered by the receiver chip
\item All network devices use the same physical layer clock
\item Clock loopback allows phase detection to enhance precision of timestamps
\end{itemize}
\vspace{-0.2cm}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics<1>[height=5cm]{misc/synce_v3.pdf}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Digital Dual Mixer Time Difference (DDMTD)}
\begin{itemize}
\item Precise phase measurements in FPGA
\item WR parameters:
\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
\item $clk_{in}~~~~~~~~=62.5$~MHz
\item $clk_{DDMTD}=62.496185$~MHz (N=14)
\item $clk_{out}~~~~~~=~~3.814$~kHz
\end{itemize}
\item Theoretical resolution of 0.977~ps
\end{itemize}
\vspace{-0.2cm}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{misc/ddmtd_3.jpg}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Link delay model}
\begin{columns}
\column{.65\textwidth}
\footnotesize
\begin{itemize}
\item <1->Correction of RTT for asymmetries
\item <2->Asymmetry sources: FPGA, PCB, SFP electrics/optics, chromatic dispersion
\item <3->Link delay model:
\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
\item \textbf{Fixed delays} -- calibrated/measured
\item \textbf{Variable delays} -- evaluated online with:\vspace{0.1cm} $\alpha = \frac{\nu_g(\lambda_s)}{\nu_g(\lambda_m)} -1 = \frac{\delta_{ms} - \delta_{sm}}{\delta_{sm}}$
\end{itemize}
\item <4-> Accurate offset from master (OFM):\scriptsize \\\vspace{0.2cm}
$\delta_{ms}~ = \frac{1 + \alpha}{2 + \alpha} \, (RTT - \sum \Delta - \sum \epsilon)$\vspace{0.2cm}
$OFM = t_{2} - (t_{1} + \delta_{ms} + \Delta_{txm} + \Delta_{rxs} + \epsilon_S)$
\end{itemize}
\column{.5\textwidth}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics<1>[width=1.0\textwidth]{protocol/link-delay-model-detailed-1.jpg}
\includegraphics<2>[width=1.0\textwidth]{protocol/link-delay-model-detailed-2.jpg}
\includegraphics<3->[width=1.0\textwidth]{protocol/link-delay-model-detailed-3.jpg}\\\pause\pause\pause
\end{center}
\end{columns}
\pause
\begin{block}{}
Calibration procedure to find fixed delays ($\Delta$) and $\alpha$
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Out-of-the-box performance}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics<1>[height=7.0cm]{measurements/meas_setup.pdf}
\includegraphics<2>[height=6.0cm]{measurements/meas_results2.pdf}\\
\end{center}
\end{frame}
%\begin{frame}{Frequency transfer: out-of-the-box and improved}
%
% \begin{center}
% \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/rsz_experimental_setup.png}\\
% \scriptsize
% Measurement device: Microsemi/Microchip 3120A Phase Noise Test Probe\\
% \end{center}
%
%\end{frame}
%\begin{frame}{Frequency transfer: out-of-the-box and improved}
%\vspace{-0.35cm}
% \begin{center}
% \includegraphics[width=.72\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/GM+BC_MDEV.jpg}
%
% \end{center}
%\vspace{-0.5cm}
%\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
% \item<1-> Out-of-the-box performance:
% \begin{itemize}\tiny
% \item \textbf{GM-in to GM-out}: jitter of \textbf{9~ps} RMS 1~Hz--100~kHz and MDEV of \textbf{2E-12} $\tau$=1~s ENBW 50~Hz
% \item \textbf{GM-in to Slave-out}: jitter of \textbf{11~ps} RMS 1~Hz--100~kHz and MDEV of \textbf{4E-12} $\tau$=1~s ENBW 50~Hz
% \end{itemize}
% \item<2-> WR Switches improved with Low Jitter Daughterboard (LJD [14, 16]):
% \begin{itemize}\tiny
% \item \textbf{GM-in to GM-out}: jitter of \textbf{1~ps} RMS 1~Hz--100~kHz and MDEV of $<$\textbf{5E-13} $\tau$=1~s ENBW 50~Hz
% \item \textbf{GM-in to Slave-out}: jitter of $<$\textbf{2~ps} RMS 1~Hz--100~kHz and MDEV of $<$\textbf{7E-13} $\tau$=1~s ENBW 50~Hz
% \end{itemize}
%\end{itemize}
%
%\end{frame}
%\begin{frame}{WR time \& frequency tranfser: state of the art}
%
% \begin{center}
% \includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{measurements//RF-ertm_clka_100mhz_ocxo_250m_out-v2.png}
% \end{center}
% \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
% \item \textbf{GM-out to end-node-out}: accuracy of $<$\textbf{10~ps}
% \item \textbf{GM-out to end-node-out}: jitter of $<$\textbf{100~fs} RMS 10~Hz--10~MHz
% \end{itemize}
%\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Equipment}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Typical WR network}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=.5\textwidth]{network/wr_network-enhanced_pro.pdf}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}[t,fragile]{WR Switch}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{switch/wrSwitch_v3_3.jpg}
\begin{itemize}\small
\item Central element of WR network
\item 18 port gigabit Ethernet switch with WR features
\item Default optical transceivers: up to 10km, single-mode fiber
\item Fully open, commercially available from 4 companies
\end{itemize}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{WR Switch: hardware block diagram}
\vspace{-0.3cm}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=.85\textwidth]{switch/switch3_4_simple_diagram_h.pdf}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{WR Node: carriers + mezzanines}
\vspace{-0.5cm}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=9.5cm]{node/shw_kit2.png}
\end{center}
\begin{columns}[c]
\column{.01\textwidth}
\column{.98\textwidth}
\vspace{-0.5cm}
\begin{block}{FMC-based Hardware Kit}
\begin{itemize}\small
% \item Carrier boards in PCI-Express, VME, PXIe
\item All carrier cards are equipped with a White Rabbit port
\item All carrier cards instantite WR PTP Core
\item Mezzanines can use the accurate clock signal and timecode
\\ (synchronous sampling clock, trigger time tag, ...)
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\column{.01\textwidth}
\end{columns}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{WR PTP Core}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=\textheight]{node/wrNode.jpg}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Open \textbf{and} commercially available off-the-shelf}
\includegraphics[width=1.0\textwidth]{misc/WR-zoo.jpg}\vspace{-1cm}
\begin{center}
\small
\textbf{Companies selling White Rabbit:} \url{www.ohwr.org/projects/white-rabbit/wiki/wrcompanies}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Monitoring}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Monitoring and management of WR networks}
\begin{itemize}
\item<1-> White Rabbit is an extension of Ethernet
\item<2-> It can be managed using standard protocols and tools:
\begin{itemize}
\item Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
\item Syslog
\item Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)
\item Kerberos-based authentication
\end{itemize}
\item<3-> It can be debugged using standard tools:
\begin{itemize}
\item Wireshark
\item Tcpdump
\item Professional Ethernet testers
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{BE-CO services: Grafana}
here goes Grafana screenshot
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{BE-CO services: CCDE}
here goes CCDE screenshot
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Applications}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{WR applications in science and beyond}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{columns}[c]
\column{.5\textwidth}
\begin{itemize}
\item Time-based control
\item Time \& frequency transfer
\item Precise timestamping
\item Trigger distribution
\item Fixed-latency data transfer
\item Radio-frequency transfer
\end{itemize}
\column{.6\textwidth}
\pause
\begin{block}{\centering New paradigm}
\begin{center}
Precise time \& frequency transfer\\ revolutionises \\the way science is made !
\end{center}
\end{block}
\end{columns}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%\begin{frame}{Time \& frequency transfer}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \begin{itemize}\small
% \item Widely used/evaluated by Time Laboratories\\
% \textcolor{white}{Evaluated by Deutsche Telecom}
% \end{itemize}
%\vspace{0.2cm}
% \begin{table}
% \scriptsize
% \begin{tabular}{
% | c | c | c | r | r l | } \hline
% \textbf{Time Lab}& \textbf{Country} & \textbf{When}& \textbf{Length} & \multicolumn{2}{|c|}{\textbf{Time Error}}\\ \hline
% VTT & Finland & 2016 & 950~km & $\pm$2~ns & \\ \cline{3-6}
% MIKES & & 2018 & 50~km & $<$1~ns & \\ \hline
% & & 2016 & 2x137~km & $\approx$8~ns &(2 sigma, normal dist.) \\ \cline{3-6}%
% VSL & Netherlands & 2018 & 2x100~km & $<$1~ns & (rectangular dist.) \\ \cline{3-6}
% & & 2019 & 2x100~km & $<$100~ps & (rectangular dist.) \\ \hline
% LNE- & & 2016 & 25~km & 150~ps & \\ \cline{3-6}
% SYRTE & France & 2017 & 125~km & 2.5~ns & \\ \cline{4-6}
% & & & 4x125~km & 2.5~ns & \\ \hline
% NIST & USA & 2018 & $<$10~km & $<$200~ps & \\ \hline
% NPL & UK & 2017 & 2x80~km & $<$1~ns & \\ \hline
% INRIM & Italy & 2014 & 50~km & 800~ps & $\pm$56~ps \\ \cline{4-6}
% & & & 70~km & 610~ps & $\pm$47~ps \\ \hline
% SMD \& & Belgium to & 2019 & 260~km & $\pm$200~ps & (2 sigma, normal dist.) \\
% ESTEC & Netherlands & & & & \\ \hline
% % & 400~km & & \\ \hline
%
% \end{tabular}
% \end{table}\vspace{-0.4cm}
% \begin{center}
%\scriptsize See more in [5] and [6]
% \end{center}
%\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \subsection{Time-based control}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Time-based control}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}
\includegraphics<1>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/CERN/Determinism+synchronization-1.jpg}
\includegraphics<2>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/CERN/Determinism+synchronization-2.jpg}
\includegraphics<3>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/CERN/Determinism+synchronization-3.jpg}
\includegraphics<4>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/CERN/Determinism+synchronization-4.jpg}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Time-based control - example application}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{columns}[c]
\column{.65\textwidth}
\begin{itemize} \small
\item<1-> GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Germany
\item<2-> 1-5 ns accuracy and 10 ps precision
\item<3-> WR network at GSI:
\begin{itemize}\footnotesize
\item Current: 134 nodes \& 32 switches (operational since June 2018)
\item Final: 2000 WR nodes \& 300 switches in 5 layers
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\column{.5\textwidth}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/gsi.pdf}
\end{center}
\end{columns}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Time \& frequency transfer}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{itemize}\small
\item Widely used/evaluated by Time Laboratories
\item Evaluated by Deutsche Telecom
\end{itemize}
\includegraphics<1>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/DT.png}\\\tiny
ISPCS keynote \textit{Highly Accurate Time Dissemination \& Network Synchronisation}, Helmut Imlau, Deutsche Telekom
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Precise timestamping}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{columns}[c]
\column{.65\textwidth}
\textcolor{white}{dddd dsaf asd fasd fdsa fads f dsa fdsa f dsaf dsa fdsa f dsaf dsaf fds}
\begin{itemize} \small
\item<1-> Association of time with
\begin{itemize}\footnotesize
\item an event
\item a sample (measured value)
\end{itemize}
\item<2-> The most widely used WR application
\begin{itemize}\footnotesize
\item<3-> Time-of-flight measurement
\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
\item<4-> Speed of neutrinos - CNGS
\item<5-> Types of particles - ProtoDUNE
\end{itemize}
\item<6-> Cosmic ray and neutrino detection
\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
\item<7-> Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory
\item<8-> Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope
\item<9-> Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy
\end{itemize}
\item<10-> German Stock Exchange
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\column{.5\textwidth}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics<1-2>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/timestamping.jpg}
\includegraphics<4>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/cngs-timing-31.pdf}
\includegraphics<5>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/ProtoDUNE.png}
\includegraphics<7>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/lhaaso.pdf}
\includegraphics<8>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/KM3NeT.pdf}
\includegraphics<9>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/TAIGA-1.jpg}
\includegraphics<10>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/GermanStockExchange.jpg}
\end{center}
\end{columns}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Trigger distribution}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}\vspace{-0.2cm}
\includegraphics[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/CERN/WRTD.jpg}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Trigger distribution - example applications}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}\vspace{-0.2cm}\small
LHC trigger distribution to measure beam instabilities - since 2016\\
\includegraphics[width=0.7\textwidth]{applications/LIST.jpg}
\end{center}
\begin{center}
\pause\small
WRXI - White Rabbit eXtensions for Instrumentation - to replace CERN’s Open Analog Signals Information System (OASIS)
\end{center}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Fixed-latency data transfer}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}\vspace{-0.2cm}
\includegraphics<1>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/Fixed-latency.jpg}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Fixed-latency data transfer- example application}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}
Distribution of magnetic field in CERN accelerators
\end{center}
\begin{center}\vspace{-0.2cm}
\includegraphics<1>[height=0.6\textwidth]{applications/CERN/btrain-1.jpg}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Radio-frequency transfer}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{columns}[c]
\column{1.1\textwidth}
\begin{center}\vspace{-0.5cm}
\includegraphics<1>[width=1.05\textwidth]{applications/DDS-0.jpg}
\includegraphics<2>[width=1.05\textwidth]{applications/DDS-1.jpg}
\end{center}
\column{0.05\textwidth}
\end{columns}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Radio-frequency transfer - example application}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}\vspace{-0.2cm}
\includegraphics[height=0.4\textwidth]{applications/ESRF.jpg}
\includegraphics[height=0.4\textwidth]{applications/ESRF-pic.png}
\end{center}\small
\begin{itemize}\footnotesize
\item RF over WR at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)
\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
\item A prototype tested in operation: $<$10 ps jitter
\end{itemize}
\item RF over WR at CERN
\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
\item A prototype: $<$100 fs jitter and $<$10 ps accuracy
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%