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\title[White Rabbit \hspace{18em}\insertframenumber/\inserttotalframenumber]{White Rabbit}
\subtitle{A short introduction and update}
% \author[CERN\hspace{17em} Maciej Lipi\'{n}ski]{Maciej Lipi\'{n}ski}
% \author[European Organization for Nuclear Research $\mid$  Maciej Lipi\'{n}ski]{Maciej Lipi\'{n}ski}
% \author[Maciej Lipi\'{n}ski $\mid$ European Organization for Nuclear Research]{Maciej Lipi\'{n}ski}
\author[Maciej Lipi\'{n}ski, Javier Serrano $\mid$ CERN]{Maciej Lipi\'{n}ski,
  Javier Serrano}
\institute{European Organisation for Nuclear Research\\(CERN)}
\date[30 September 2020]{Virtual workshop on White Rabbit for time and frequency
  transfer\vspace{0.5cm}\\30 September 2020}

\AtBeginSection[]
{
  \begin{frame}<beamer>{Outline}
    \tableofcontents[currentsection]
  \end{frame}
}

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\begin{frame}<beamer>{Outline}
  \tableofcontents
\end{frame}

\section{Introduction}
\subsection{}
%=======================
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{What is White Rabbit [1]?}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{columns}[c]
	\column{0.65\textwidth}
\footnotesize
% \textcolor{white}{dddd dsaf asd fasd fdsa fads f dsa fdsa f dsaf dsa fdsa f dsaf dsaf fds}
	  \begin{itemize}
		
		\item<1-> Initiated to renovate CERN's and GSI's accelerator
                  timing system
		\item<2-> \textbf{Based on well-established standards}
		\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
		  \item <3->Ethernet \textcolor{gray}{(IEEE 802.3)}
		  \item <3->Bridged Local Area Network \textcolor{gray}{(IEEE 802.1Q)}
		  \item <4->Precision Time Protocol \textcolor{gray}{(IEEE 1588)}
		\end{itemize}
		\item<6->Extends standards to meet new requirements and provides
		\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
		\item \color{blue!90}{\textbf{Sub-ns synchronisation}}
		\item \color{red}{Deterministic data transfer} [2]
		\end{itemize}
                \item<7-> Initial specs: links $\leq$10~km \& $\leq$2000 nodes
		
%     \item<7-> Initial network specification:  
% 		\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
% 		\item Fiber links length: $\leq$10~km
% 		\item Number of nodes: $\leq$2000 
% 		\end{itemize}

    \item<8-> \textbf{Open Source and commercially available}
%     \item<9-> Many users worldwide, inc. metrology labs...
	  \end{itemize}

% \textcolor{white}{dddd dsaf asd fasd fdsa fads f dsa fdsa f dsaf dsa fdsa f dsaf dsaf fds}
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\textcolor{white}{dddd dsaf asd fasd fdsa fads f dsa fdsa f dsaf dsa fdsa f dsaf dsaf fds}
	\column{0.55\textwidth}
		\begin{center}
		\includegraphics<1-2>[height=0.7\textheight]{p1588/PTPv3_blank.jpg}
		\includegraphics<3>[height=0.7\textheight]{misc/LAN.jpg}
		\includegraphics<4>[height=0.7\textheight]{misc/ieee-1588-ptp-example.jpg}
		\includegraphics<5>[height=0.7\textheight]{network/WR_network-ethernet.pdf}
		\includegraphics<6->[height=0.7\textheight]{network/wr_network-enhanced_pro_without_10km.pdf}
		
% 		\includegraphics<3>[width=0.85\textwidth]{misc/LAN.jpg}
% 		\includegraphics<4>[width=0.8\textwidth]{misc/ieee-1588-ptp-example.jpg}
% 		\includegraphics<5>[width=1.0\textwidth]{network/WR_network-ethernet.pdf}
% 		\includegraphics<6->[width=1.0\textwidth]{network/wr_network-enhanced_pro-v2.pdf}

		\end{center}
	\end{columns}%\small\pause\pause\pause\pause\pause\pause\pause\pause
% 	     \url{https://www.ohwr.org/projects/white-rabbit/}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Open \textbf{and} commercially available off-the-shelf}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\includegraphics[width=1.0\textwidth]{misc/WR-zoo.jpg}\vspace{-1cm}
 \begin{center}
 \small
 \textbf{Companies selling White Rabbit [3]:} \url{www.ohwr.org/projects/white-rabbit/wiki/wrcompanies}
 \end{center}

\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% 
% 
% \begin{frame}{White Rabbit application examples}
% 
%   \begin{columns}[c]
%     \column{0.7\textwidth}
%   \begin{itemize}
%       \item<1-> \color<2->{black!50}{CERN and GSI}
%       \item<2-> \color<3->{black!50}{HiSCORE: Gamma\&Cosmic-Ray experiment}
%       \item<3-> \color<4->{black!50}{The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory}
%       \item<4-> \color<5->{black!50}{MIKES: Centre for metrology and accreditation}
%       \item<5-> {KM3NET: European deep-sea neutrino telescope}
%     \end{itemize}
% 
%     \column{0.45\textwidth}    
%     \begin{center}
%       \includegraphics<1>[width=0.80\textwidth]{applications/gsiANDcern.pdf}
%       \pause
%       \includegraphics<2>[width=1\textwidth]{applications/tunka.pdf}
%       \pause
%       \includegraphics<3>[width=1\textwidth]{applications/lhaaso.pdf}
%       \pause
%       \includegraphics<4>[width=.7\textwidth]{applications/mikes.pdf}
%       \pause
%       \includegraphics<5->[width=1\textwidth]{applications/KM3NeT.pdf}
%     \end{center}
% 
%   \end{columns}
%   \pause
%     {\small More WR collaborators: \url{http://www.ohwr.org/projects/white-rabbit/wiki/WRUsers}}
% \end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

\begin{frame}{Many users worldwide, including metrology labs...}
% \small
\footnotesize
  \begin{columns}[c]
    \column{0.72\textwidth}
  \begin{itemize}
      \item<1-> \color<2->{black!50}{CERN and GSI}
      \item<2-> \color<3->{black!50}{The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory}
      \item<3-> \color<4->{black!50}{KM3NET: Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope}
      \item<4-> \color<5->{black!50}{German Stock Exchange}
      \item<5-> \color<7->{black!50}{Mikes: Finish Metrology Institute}  
      \item<6-> \color<7->{black!50}{Metrology Institutes in Netherlands (VSL), \\France (LNE-SYRTE), USA (NIST), UK (NPL) and\\Italy (INRIM)} %and Belgium (SMD)
      \item<7-> ESA: European Space Agency for Galileo


    \end{itemize}


    \column{0.45\textwidth}    
    \begin{center}
      \includegraphics<1>[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/gsiANDcern.pdf}
%       \includegraphics<2>[width=1\textwidth]{applications/lhaaso.pdf}
      \includegraphics<2>[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/lhaaso-v2.jpg}
%       \includegraphics<3>[width=1\textwidth]{applications/KM3NeT.pdf}
      \includegraphics<3>[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/KM3NeT-v2.jpg}
%       \includegraphics<4>[width=1\textwidth]{applications/GermanStockExchange.jpg}
      \includegraphics<4>[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/GermanStockExchange-v2.jpg}
      \includegraphics<5>[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/finland-2.jpg}
      \includegraphics<6>[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/TimeLabs.png}
      \includegraphics<7->[height=0.75\textheight]{applications/ESA-galileo.jpg}
    \end{center}

  \end{columns}
  \pause\pause\pause\pause\pause\pause\pause%\vspace{0.5cm}
    {\scriptsize See user page [4]: \url{http://www.ohwr.org/projects/white-rabbit/wiki/WRUsers}}
    {\scriptsize See also article [5] and newsletter [6]}
\end{frame}

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

\section{Technology}
\subsection{}

\begin{frame}{White Rabbit technology - sub-ns synchronisation}
  \begin{block}{Based on}
    \begin{itemize}
      \item IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol \\ on Gigabit Ethernet over fibre
    \end{itemize}
  \end{block}
  \pause
  \begin{block}{Enhanced with}
    \begin{itemize}
      \item Layer 1 syntonisation
      \item Digital Dual Mixer Time Difference (DDMTD)
      \item Link delay model
    \end{itemize}
  \end{block}
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}{Precision Time Protocol (IEEE 1588)}
\begin{columns}[c]
  \column{.4\textwidth}
    \begin{center}
      \includegraphics<1>[height=5cm]{protocol/ptp_exchange-enhanced.jpg}
      \includegraphics<2->[height=4cm]{protocol/ptpNetwork.jpg}
    \end{center}
  \column{.75\textwidth}
    \begin{itemize}
	  \item Frame-based synchronisation protocol
    \item Simple calculations:
    \begin{itemize}
      \item link delay: $\delta_{ms} = \frac{(t_{4}-t_{1}) - (t_{3}-t_{2})}{2}$
      \item offset from master: $OFM = t_{2} - (t_{1} + \delta_{ms})$
    \end{itemize}
    \item<2-> Hierarchical network
    \item<3-> Shortcomings:
    \begin{itemize}
      \item devices have free-running oscillators
      \item frequency drift compensation vs. message exchange traffic
      \item assumes symmetry of medium
      \item timestamps resolution
    \end{itemize}
  \end{itemize}
\end{columns}
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}{Layer 1 Syntonisation}
 %\begin{block}{Common clock for the entire network}
  \begin{itemize}\small
    \item Clock is encoded in the Ethernet carrier and recovered by the receiver chip
    \item All network devices use the same physical layer clock
    \item Clock loopback allows phase detection to enhance precision of timestamps
%     \item Phase detection allows sub-ns delay measurement
  \end{itemize}
%\end{block}
\vspace{-0.2cm}
  \begin{center}
  \includegraphics<1>[height=5cm]{misc/synce_v3.pdf}
%   \includegraphics[height=4.5cm]<2>{p1588/1588-ha-L1vsPTP-simplified.jpg}
  \end{center}
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}{Digital Dual Mixer Time Difference (DDMTD)}

  \begin{itemize}
    \item Precise phase measurements in FPGA
    \item WR parameters:
    \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
      \item $clk_{in}~~~~~~~~=62.5$~MHz 
      \item $clk_{DDMTD}=62.496185$~MHz (N=14)
      \item $clk_{out}~~~~~~=~~3.814$~kHz
    \end{itemize}
    \item Theoretical resolution of 0.977~ps
  \end{itemize}
  \vspace{-0.2cm}
  \begin{center}
  \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{misc/ddmtd_3.jpg}
  \end{center}

\end{frame}

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \begin{frame}{SoftPLL}
%   \begin{center}
%     \includegraphics[width=.9\textwidth]{protocol/dmpll_diagram-slides.pdf}
%   \end{center}
% \end{frame}

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

\begin{frame}{Link delay model}
  \begin{columns}
    \column{.65\textwidth}
    \footnotesize
      \begin{itemize}
      \item <1->Correction of RTT for asymmetries
        \item <2->Asymmetry sources: FPGA, PCB, SFP electrics/optics, chromatic dispersion [7,8]
        \item <3->Link delay model:
        \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
          \item \textbf{Fixed delays} -- calibrated/measured
          \item \textbf{Variable delays} -- evaluated online with:\vspace{0.1cm} $\alpha = \frac{\nu_g(\lambda_s)}{\nu_g(\lambda_m)} -1  = \frac{\delta_{ms} - \delta_{sm}}{\delta_{sm}}$
        \end{itemize}
        \item <4-> Accurate offset from master (OFM):\scriptsize \\\vspace{0.2cm}
%          $RTT=(t_{4}-t_{1}) - (t_{3}-t_{2})$\\
         $\delta_{ms}~ = \frac{1 + \alpha}{2 + \alpha} \, (RTT - \sum \Delta - \sum \epsilon)$\vspace{0.2cm}
         $OFM = t_{2} - (t_{1} + \delta_{ms} + \Delta_{txm} + \Delta_{rxs} + \epsilon_S)$
      \end{itemize}
  \column{.5\textwidth}
  \begin{center}
     \includegraphics<1>[width=1.0\textwidth]{protocol/link-delay-model-detailed-1.jpg}
     \includegraphics<2>[width=1.0\textwidth]{protocol/link-delay-model-detailed-2.jpg}
     \includegraphics<3->[width=1.0\textwidth]{protocol/link-delay-model-detailed-3.jpg}\\\pause\pause\pause
     \tiny See: \textit{WR Calibration} [9]
    \end{center}
  \end{columns}
%   \pause\pause\pause\pause
%   \scriptsize See: \textit{WR Calibration}, version 1.1, G.Daniluk
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% 
% \section{Equipment}
% \subsection{}
% 
% \begin{frame}{Typical WR network}
%   \begin{center}
% 		\includegraphics[width=.5\textwidth]{network/wr_network-enhanced_pro.pdf}
%   \end{center}
% \end{frame}
% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \begin{frame}[t,fragile]{White Rabbit Switch [10]}
% 	\begin{center}
% 		\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{switch/wrSwitch_v3_3.jpg}
% 		\begin{itemize}\small
% 			\item Central element of WR network
% 			\item 18 port gigabit Ethernet switch with WR features
% 			\item Default Optical transceivers: up to 10km, single-mode fiber
%       \item Fully open, commercially available from 4 companies
% 		\end{itemize}
%      
% 	\end{center}
% 	\begin{center}\scriptsize
% 	 NOTE: Work started on a new WR switch with 10 Gigabit Ethernet 
% 	 \end{center}
% \end{frame}
% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% 
% \begin{frame}{Simplified block diagram of the hardware}
% 	\vspace{-0.3cm}
%   \begin{center}
%     \includegraphics[width=.85\textwidth]{switch/switch3_4_simple_diagram_h.pdf}
%   \end{center} 
% \end{frame}
% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \begin{frame}{Open \textbf{and} commercially available off-the-shelf}
% 		\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{misc/WR-zoo.jpg}
% \end{frame}
% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% 
% 
% \begin{frame}{WR Node [11]: carrier board + FMC}
% \vspace{-0.5cm}
% \begin{center}
%     \includegraphics[width=9.5cm]{node/shw_kit2.png}
%     \end{center}
% 
%   \begin{columns}[c]
%     \column{.01\textwidth}
%     \column{.98\textwidth}
% \vspace{-0.5cm}
% 	\begin{block}{FMC-based Hardware Kit}
% 	  \begin{itemize}\small
% %	  \item Carrier boards in PCI-Express, VME, PXIe
% 	  \item All carrier cards are equipped with a White Rabbit port
% 	  \item All carrier cards instantite WR PTP Core [12]
% 	  \item Mezzanines can use the accurate clock signal and ``TAI''
% 		\\ (synchronous sampling clock, trigger time tag, ...)
% 	  \end{itemize}
% 	\end{block}
% 
%     \column{.01\textwidth}
%   \end{columns}
% \end{frame}
% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \begin{frame}{White Rabbit PTP Core [11]}
%  \begin{center}
%    \includegraphics[width=\textheight]{node/wrNode.jpg}
%    \end{center}
% \end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Performance}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Time transfer: out-of-the-box}

    \begin{center}
    \includegraphics[height=7.0cm]{measurements/meas_setup.pdf}
    \end{center}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}{Time transfer: out-of-the-box}

    \begin{center}
    \includegraphics[height=6.0cm]{measurements/meas_results2.pdf}\\
    Reported in 2011 in [13]
    \end{center}

\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Frequency transfer: out-of-the-box and improved}

  \begin{center}
    \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/rsz_experimental_setup.png}\\
    \scriptsize
    Measurement device: Microsemi/Microchip 3120A Phase Noise Test Probe\\
  \end{center}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}{Frequency transfer: out-of-the-box and improved}
\vspace{-0.35cm}
  \begin{center}
%     \includegraphics[width=.57\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/GM+BC_pn.jpg}
    \includegraphics[width=.72\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/GM+BC_MDEV.jpg}
%     \includegraphics[width=1.0\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/GM+BC_pn+MDEC.jpg}
    
  \end{center}
\vspace{-0.5cm}
\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
  \item<1-> Out-of-the-box performance:
  \begin{itemize}\tiny
    \item \textbf{GM-in to GM-out}: jitter of \textbf{9~ps} RMS 1~Hz--100~kHz and MDEV of \textbf{2E-12} $\tau$=1~s ENBW 50~Hz
    \item \textbf{GM-in to Slave-out}: jitter of \textbf{11~ps} RMS 1~Hz--100~kHz and MDEV of \textbf{4E-12}  $\tau$=1~s ENBW 50~Hz
  \end{itemize}
  \item<2-> WR Switches improved with Low Jitter Daughterboard (LJD [14, 16]):
  \begin{itemize}\tiny
    \item \textbf{GM-in to GM-out}: jitter of \textbf{1~ps} RMS 1~Hz--100~kHz and MDEV of $<$\textbf{5E-13} $\tau$=1~s ENBW 50~Hz
    \item \textbf{GM-in to Slave-out}: jitter of $<$\textbf{2~ps} RMS 1~Hz--100~kHz and MDEV of $<$\textbf{7E-13}  $\tau$=1~s ENBW 50~Hz
  \end{itemize}
%   \item<3-> Enhanced end-node (Morion MV207 OCXO):
%   \begin{itemize}\tiny
%     \item \textbf{GM-out to BC-out}: jitter of $<$\textbf{100fs} RMS 10Hz-10MHz 
%   \end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
% \pause\pause
% \begin{center}\scriptsize
%   See more in t [14, 16]
% \end{center}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}{WR time \& frequency tranfser: state of the art}

  \begin{center}
    \includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{measurements//RF-ertm_clka_100mhz_ocxo_250m_out-v2.png}
  \end{center}
  \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
    \item \textbf{GM-out to end-node-out}: accuracy of $<$\textbf{10~ps} 
    \item \textbf{GM-out to end-node-out}: jitter of $<$\textbf{100~fs} RMS 10~Hz--10~MHz 
  \end{itemize}  
\end{frame}

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section[WR and Open Source]{White Rabbit and Open Source}
\subsection{}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

\begin{frame}{The White Rabbit ecosystem 1/2}
  \begin{block}{Individuals, companies and public institutions}
    \begin{itemize}
      \item Open Source provides level playing field.
      \item ``Open Core'' business model with ever-expanding core.
      \item If you are paid with public money, please publish all your
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        contributions under an open-source licence. See \textcolor{cyan}{
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        \href{https://ohwr.org/project/ohr-meta/wikis/Documents/oshw-in-public-institutions}
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             {https://ohwr.org/project/ohr-meta/wikis/Documents/oshw-in-public-institutions}}.
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    \end{itemize}
  \end{block}
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}{The White Rabbit ecosystem 1/2}
  \begin{block}{Challenges ahead}
    \begin{itemize}
      \item How to maintain a healthy ever-expanding open core? The issue with
        patents.
      \item How to manage the evolution of WR in a fair, transparent way?
      \item How to make WR more sustainable, providing a template other FOSS and
        OSHW projects can use?
    \end{itemize}
  \end{block}
  Should we create a White Rabbit Foundation?
\end{frame}

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%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{WR Switch}
\subsection{}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{White Rabbit Switch firmware v6.0}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  \begin{itemize}\small
    \item Latest firwmare release for WRS-v3 on 12 June 2020 (\textcolor{cyan}{\href{https://ohwr.org/project/wr-switch-sw/wikis/Release-v60}{see}})
    \item Highlights:
    \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
        \item Low phase drift calibration (ports 1-12 only) - improved phase stability between link restarts $<$10ps 
        \item WRS Low Jitter Daugherboard support
%        \item Preamble shrinkage support
%         \item Port mirroring to include CPU-originated traffic
        \item Leap-second file handling and updating
%         \item Kerberos for authentication
        \item Reorganized dot-config, more PTP parameters exposed
        \item PPSi reorganization to prepare for IEEE1588 HA profile
        \item PPSi compatibility with standard PTP improved (BMCA fixed)
    \end{itemize}
     \item NOTE: 
     \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
      \item dot-config is re-organized, use \textbf{wrs\_menuconfig} to generate configuration
      \item it takes much longer to start the WR switch due to calibration, be patient
     \end{itemize}
  \end{itemize}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{White Rabbit Switch version 4 (WRS-4)}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  \begin{itemize}\small
    \item Project: \textcolor{cyan}{\url{https://ohwr.org/project/wr-switch-hw-v4/wikis}}
    \item Study phase (2019-2020):
    \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
        \item Inputs from WR community
        \item Study on the features and mainboard of the WRS-4\\
              \tiny
              \textcolor{cyan}{\href{https://ohwr.org/project/wr-switch-hw-v4/wikis/features-choice-meeting-with-it}{CERN IT consultation}},
              \textcolor{cyan}{\href{https://ohwr.org/project/wr-switch-hw-v4/wikis/uploads/31c7019f3c24cb12ec0f8c79c108af59/WRS-v4-resource-utilization.pdf}{FPGA resource evaluation}},
              \textcolor{cyan}{\href{https://ohwr.org/project/wr-switch-hw-v4/wikis/uploads/2309166f9f7deb1249f3fa6fcb99c925/Study_on_the_new_hardware_features_for_the_WRS_4.pdf}{features}} and
              \textcolor{cyan}{\href{https://ohwr.org/project/wr-switch-hw-v4/wikis/uploads/c4fa8bc97eeeb551c736146eae7b8e25/WRS-4_main_board_Hardware_Architecture_-v1.7-2020-06-09.pdf}{mainboard}} specifications
              \scriptsize
        \item Negotiation of a (very good) price for the recommended FPGA
        \item \textcolor{cyan}{\href{https://www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/wikis/New-WRS-4-Workshop}{New WRS-4 Workshop}}, to gather 
              \textcolor{cyan}{\href{https://ohwr.org/project/wr-switch-hw-v4/issues?scope=all\&utf8=\%E2\%9C\%93&state=all}{feedback}} from the WR community
        \item Final HW specification of the WRS-4
    \end{itemize}
    \item Development (2020-2024) - two phases:
    \begin{enumerate}\scriptsize
        \item \textbf{WRS-4 with 1 Gbps (2022)} - 18-20 ports with 1 Gbps\vspace{0.1cm}
        \item \textbf{WRS-4 with 1 \& 10 Gbps (2024)} - 18-24 ports with 1 and/or 10 Gbps
     \end{enumerate}
  \end{itemize}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{WRS-4 HW specification}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{columns}[c]
  \column{.7\textwidth}

  \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
    \item Drop-in replacement for the WRS-3
    \item HW prototype with 24 ports 1 \& 10 Gbps (\textcolor{cyan}{\href{https://ohwr.org/project/wr-switch-hw-v4/issues/1}{see}})\\
          \tiny
          v4.1: 18-20@1Gb\\
          v4.2: 20-24@1\&10 Gbps or\\\vspace{-0.1cm}
          \textcolor{white}{v4.2: 20-}20@1Gbps \& 2-4 @10Gbps
          \scriptsize
    \item Interfaces aligned with industry trends \& users’ needs\\
          \tiny
          USB C, mgmt RJ45 \& SFP, reset, 10MHz/1PPS in/out+Abscal out, LCD
          \scriptsize
    \item Redundant and hot-swappable fans, as well as industry-standard power supply
    \item Fanless-ready
    \item FPGA Zynq Ultrascale+ MPSoC ZU17 \\
          GTH to front panel, GTY to expansion board
    \item Extension board (holdover, 25Gbps)
    \item Price-optimized for commercialisation
%     \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
%         \item Inputs from WR community
%         \item Study on the features and mainboard of the WRS-4\\
%         \item Negotation of a (very good) price for the recommended FPGA
%         \item \textit{New WRS-4 Workshop} to gather feedback from the WR community
%         \item Final HW specification of the WRS-4
%     \end{itemize} 
  \end{itemize} 
 \column{.45\textwidth}  
    \begin{center}
        \includegraphics[width=0.99\textwidth]{switch/wrs_v4_design-1.jpg}\\
        \includegraphics[width=0.99\textwidth]{switch/wrs_v4_design-2.jpg}
    \end{center}
\end{columns}

\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Conclusions}
\subsection{}

\begin{frame}{Summary}
  \begin{itemize}
	  \item<1-> Sub-ns accuracy and sub-10~ps precision out-of-the-box
	  \item<2-> Sub-10~ps accuracy and sub-100~fs precision achievable
	  \item<3-> Completely open source
	  \item<4-> Commercially available off-the-shelf
	  \item<5-> Standard-based and standard extending
	  \item<6-> Included in the revised IEEE1588
	  \item<7-> Showcase of technology transfer
644
%	  \item<8-> A versatile solution for general control and data acquisition
645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794

% 	  \item<1-> Sub-ns accuracy and sub-10ps precision out-of-the-box
% 	  \item<2-> Sub-10ps accuracy and sub-100fs precision achievable
% 	  \item<3-> Open source (H/W \& S/W) with commercial support
% 	  \item<4-> Standard-compatible and standard-extending
% 	  \item<5-> Standardised within upcoming revision of IEEE1588
% 	  \item<6-> A versatile solution for general control and data acquisition
% 	  \item<7-> More applications than ever expected
 \end{itemize}
% \pause
%For more information see http://www.ohwr.org/projects/white-rabbit/wiki
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}{Q\&A}
  \begin{center}
    \includegraphics[height=4.0cm]{misc/white_rabbit_end.png}
  \end{center}
  
  \begin{center}
    Thank you for attention!\\ Any questions?
  \end{center}  
\vspace{1cm}
  \begin{center}\scriptsize
    WR Project page: http://www.ohwr.org/projects/white-rabbit/wiki
  \end{center}  
\end{frame}

\appendix
\backupbegin 

\begin{frame}{Backup slides}
      \begin{center}
      Backup slides
      \end{center}
\end{frame}

\section{References}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{References}
\tiny
%   \begin{enumerate}
%     \item \textbf{White Rabbit Project:}\url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/wikis}
%     \item \textbf{Companies selling WR:}\url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/wrcompanies}
%     \item \textbf{Users of WR:}\url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/WRUsers}
%     \item \textbf{White Rabbit Applications and Enhancements}, M.Lipinski et. al, ISPCS2018\\\url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/uploads/7f9e67258850d5c036629a509bf2e124/ISPCS2018-WRApplicatoinsAndEnhancements.pdf}
%     \item \textbf{White Rabbit Newsletter, September 2018} \\\url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/wikis/newsletter-2018-09}
%     \item \textbf{Temperature Effect and Correction Method of White Rabbit Timing Link}; Hongming Li, Guanghua Gong, Weibin Pan, Qiang Du, Jianmin Li
%     \item \textbf{DWDM Stabilized Optics for White Rabbit}, Paul Boven
%     \item \textbf{WR Calibration}, version 1.1, G.Daniluk\\ \url{www.cern.ch/white-rabbit/documents/WR_Calibration-v1.1-20151109.pdf}
%     \item \textbf{White Rabbit Switch:} \url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/wikis/Switch}
%     \item \textbf{White Rabbit Node:} \url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/wikis/Node}
%     \item \textbf{White Rabbit PTP Core:} \url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/wr-cores/wikis/Wrpc-core}
%     \item \textbf{White Rabbit: a PTP application for robust sub-nanosecond synchronization}, M. Lipiński et el, ISPCS2011\\\url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/uploads/cfc34350adcbf5156f968fac0b9301b5/ISPCS2011_WR.pdf}
%     \item \textbf{White Rabbit Clock Synchronization: Ultimate Limits on Close-In Phase Noise and Short-Term Stability Due to FPGA Implementation}, M.Rizzi et el, UFFC-T, 2018\\\url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/uploads/253cbfc17d2b43cd445b68348aee0374/Submitted_IEEE.pdf}
%     \item \textbf{White Rabbit Clock Characteristics}, M. Rizzi et el, ISPCS2016\\\url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/uploads/2fa1a438446fc6c85b4540faecf1017a/ISPCS2016-WRClockCharacteristics.pdf}
%     \item \textbf{WRS Low Jitter Daughterboard:}\url{www.ohwr.org/projects/wrs-low-jitter}
%     \item \textbf{Methods to Increase Reliability and Ensure Determinism in a White Rabbit Network}, M. Lipinski\\\url{http://cds.cern.ch/record/2261452}
%     \item \textbf{Trigger and RF Distribution using White Rabbit}, T. Wlostowski et al\\\url{http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/AccelConf/ICALEPCS2015/papers/wec3o01.pdf}
%     \item \textbf{White Rabbit Trigger Distribution:}\url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/wrtd/wikis/home}
% %     \url{https://indico.cern.ch/event/815290/#1-trigger-distribution-over-wh}
%   \end{enumerate}
  \begin{columns}[c]
    \column{.01\textwidth}
    \column{1.15\textwidth}
$[1]$ \textbf{White Rabbit Project:} \url{www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/wikis}\\
$[2]$ \textbf{Methods to Increase Reliability and Ensure Determinism in a WR Network}, M. Lipinski, \url{cds.cern.ch/record/2261452}\\
$[3]$ \textbf{Companies selling WR:} \url{www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/wrcompanies}\\
$[4]$ \textbf{Users of WR:} \url{www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/WRUsers}\\
$[5]$ \textbf{White Rabbit Applications and Enhancements}, M.Lipinski et al., ISPCS2018, \url{www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/uploads/7f9e67258850d5c036629a509bf2e124/ISPCS2018-WRApplicatoinsAndEnhancements.pdf}\\
$[6]$ \textbf{White Rabbit Newsletter, September 2018: } \url{www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/wikis/newsletter-2018-09}\\
$[7]$ \textbf{Temperature Effect and Correction Method of White Rabbit Timing Link}; H. Li et al., \url{arxiv.org/abs/1406.4223}\\
$[8]$ \textbf{DWDM Stabilized Optics for White Rabbit}, P. Boven, \url{ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8409035}\\
$[9]$ \textbf{WR Calibration}, version 1.1, G.Daniluk, \url{www.cern.ch/white-rabbit/documents/WR_Calibration-v1.1-20151109.pdf}\\
$[10]$ \textbf{White Rabbit Switch:} \url{www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/wikis/Switch}\\
$[11]$ \textbf{White Rabbit Node:} \url{www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/wikis/Node}\\
$[12]$ \textbf{White Rabbit PTP Core:} \url{www.ohwr.org/project/wr-cores/wikis/Wrpc-core}\\
$[13]$ \textbf{White Rabbit: a PTP application for robust sub-nanosecond synchronization}, M. Lipiński et el, ISPCS2011\\
~~~~~~~    \url{www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/uploads/cfc34350adcbf5156f968fac0b9301b5/ISPCS2011_WR.pdf}\\
$[14]$ \textbf{White Rabbit Clock Synchronization: Ultimate Limits on Close-In Phase Noise and Short-Term Stability Due to FPGA Implementation}, M.Rizzi et el, UFFC-T, 2018\\
~~~~~~~    \url{www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/uploads/253cbfc17d2b43cd445b68348aee0374/Submitted_IEEE.pdf}\\
$[15]$ \textbf{White Rabbit Clock Characteristics}, M. Rizzi et el., ISPCS2016,  \url{www.ohwr.org/project/white-rabbit/uploads/2fa1a438446fc6c85b4540faecf1017a/ISPCS2016-WRClockCharacteristics.pdf}\\
$[16]$ \textbf{WRS Low Jitter Daughterboard:} \url{www.ohwr.org/projects/wrs-low-jitter}\\
$[17]$ \textbf{White Rabbit standardisation:} 
    \url{www.ohwr.org/projects/wr-std/wiki/} 
$[18]$ \textbf{WR Precision Time Protocol on Long-Distance Fiber Links}, E. F. Dierikx et al., \url{ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7383303}\\
$[19]$ \textbf{White Rabbit Time Transfer on Medium and Long Fibre Hauls at INRIM}, G. Fantino et al., \\
~~~~~~~    \url{www.ion.org/publications/abstract.cfm?articleID=12598}\\
$[20]$ \textbf{Trigger and RF Distribution using White Rabbit}, T. Wlostowski et al., ICALEPCS2015, \\
~~~~~~~    \url{accelconf.web.cern.ch/AccelConf/ICALEPCS2015/papers/wec3o01.pdf}\\
$[21]$ \textbf{White Rabbit Trigger Distribution: }
\url{www.ohwr.org/project/wrtd/wikis/home}\\
~~~~~~~    \url{indico.cern.ch/event/815290/\#1-trigger-distribution-over-wh}\\
$[22]$ \textbf{Absolute Calibration: }
\url{https://www.ohwr.org/project/wr-calibration/wikis/home}\\
$[23]$ \textbf{IEEE P1588 Working Group: }
\url{https://ieee-sa.imeetcentral.com/1588public/}


%     \column{.01\textwidth}
  \end{columns}

\end{frame}




% \section{Current developments}
% \subsection{}
% \begin{frame}{Current developments}
%   \begin{itemize}\small
%   \item<1-> Standardisation in IEEE 1588 [17, 23] -- practically done
%   \item<2-> Time \& frequency performance -- prototyping
%     \begin{itemize}\scriptsize 
%       \item Jitter: \textbf{sub-100fs RMS} (100Hz to 20MHz)
%       \item Accuracy: \textbf{sub-10ps}
%     \end{itemize}
%   \item<3-> Long-haul link [18, 19] -- already working, study to improve
%     \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
%       \item \textbf{Sub-ns on 80km} and \textbf{ns on 137km} links with single bidirectional fiber
%       \item \textbf{$\pm$2.5ns on 950km} links with two unidirectional fibers
%     \end{itemize}
%     \item<4-> Absolute Calibration [22] -- developed, reproducing
%     \begin{itemize}\scriptsize 
%       \item In-situ calibration of fibers
%       \item Absolute calibration of hardware delays
%     \end{itemize}
%     \item<5-> 10 GbE WR Switch - designing
%     \item<6-> WR-based applications at CERN -- to be opperational in 2020
%     \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
%       \item Radio-frequency over WR for RF cavities control
%       \item Distributed Oscilloscope
%     \end{itemize}
%   \end{itemize}
% \end{frame}


% \begin{frame}{GM Switch with LJD: PM noise and Modified ADEV}
%   \begin{center}
%     \includegraphics[width=.5\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/pn.png}
%     \includegraphics[width=.5\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/mdev.png}
%   \end{center}
% \end{frame}
% 
% \begin{frame}{BC Switch with LJD: PM noise and Modified ADEV}
%   \begin{center}
%     \includegraphics[width=.5\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/slave_pn.png}
%     \includegraphics[width=.5\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/slave_mdev.png}
%   \end{center}
% \end{frame}

795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409 1410 1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1459 1460 1461 1462
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Applications}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{WR applications in science and beyond}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

\begin{columns}[c]
  \column{.5\textwidth}
    \begin{itemize}
      \item Time \& frequency transfer
      \item Time-based control
      \item Precise timestamping
      \item Trigger distribution
      \item Fixed-latency data transfer
      \item Radio-frequency transfer
    \end{itemize}
  \column{.6\textwidth}
  \pause
    \begin{block}{\centering New paradigm}
    \begin{center}
    Precise time \& frequency transfer\\ revolutionises \\the way science is made !
    \end{center}
    \end{block}
\end{columns}

\end{frame}

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Time \& frequency transfer}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  \begin{itemize}\small
    \item Widely used/evaluated by Time Laboratories\\
    \textcolor{white}{Evaluated by Deutsche Telecom}
  \end{itemize} 
\vspace{0.2cm}
  \begin{table}
  \scriptsize
  \begin{tabular}{
  |      c         |         c        |       c           |   r      |       r             l        | } \hline
  \textbf{Time Lab}& \textbf{Country} & \textbf{When}& \textbf{Length} & \multicolumn{2}{|c|}{\textbf{Time Error}}\\ \hline
  VTT              & Finland          & 2016              & 950~km   & $\pm$2~ns     &                          \\   \cline{3-6}
  MIKES            &                  & 2018              & 50~km    & $<$1~ns       &                          \\   \hline
                   &                  & 2016              & 2x137~km & $\approx$8~ns &(2 sigma, normal dist.)   \\ \cline{3-6}%
  VSL              & Netherlands      & 2018              & 2x100~km & $<$1~ns       & (rectangular dist.)            \\   \cline{3-6}
                   &                  & 2019              & 2x100~km & $<$100~ps     & (rectangular dist.)            \\     \hline
  LNE-             &                  & 2016              & 25~km    & 150~ps        &                          \\   \cline{3-6}
  SYRTE            & France           & 2017              & 125~km   & 2.5~ns        &                          \\   \cline{4-6}
                   &                  &                   & 4x125~km & 2.5~ns        &                          \\   \hline
  NIST             & USA              & 2018              & $<$10~km & $<$200~ps      &                          \\   \hline
  NPL              & UK               & 2017               & 2x80~km  & $<$1~ns       &                          \\   \hline
  INRIM            & Italy            & 2014              & 50~km    & 800~ps        & $\pm$56~ps               \\   \cline{4-6}
                   &                  &               & 70~km    & 610~ps        & $\pm$47~ps               \\   \hline
  SMD \&           & Belgium to       & 2019              & 260~km   & $\pm$200~ps   & (2 sigma, normal dist.)  \\  
   ESTEC           & Netherlands      &                   &                   &               &                          \\     \hline
  %                 & 400~km           &                &                     \\   \hline

  \end{tabular}
  \end{table}\vspace{-0.4cm}
     \begin{center}
\scriptsize See more in [5] and [6]
    \end{center}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Time \& frequency transfer}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  \begin{itemize}\small
    \item Widely used/evaluated by Time Laboratories
    \item Evaluated by Deutsche Telecom
  \end{itemize} 
\includegraphics<1>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/DT.png}\\\tiny
ISPCS keynote \textit{Highly Accurate Time Dissemination \& Network Synchronisation}, Helmut Imlau, Deutsche Telekom


\end{frame}

% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \begin{frame}{Time \& frequency transfer}
% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \begin{columns}[c]
%   \column{.4\textwidth}
% 
%   \begin{itemize}\small
%     \item<1-> Not very useful in scientific installations
%     \item<2-> Widely used/evaluated by National Time Laboratories\\
%     \textcolor{white}{bleblebleblebleblebleblebleblebleblebleblebleblebleblebleblebleblebleble}
%   \end{itemize} 
% 
% 
%   
%     \column{.7\textwidth}
%     \pause
% \begin{table}
% \scriptsize
% \begin{tabular}{
% |      c         |         c        |       c          |       c        | } \hline
% \textbf{Time Lab}& \textbf{Country} & \textbf{Link Length}& \textbf{Time Error}\\ \hline
% VTT              & Finland     & 950~km           & $\pm$2ns       \\   \cline{3-4}
% MIKES            &             & 50~km            & $<$1ns         \\   \hline
% VSL              & Netherlands & 2x137~km         & $\approx$8ns         \\   \hline
% %                  &             & 25~km            & 150ps          & 1-2ps@1000s         \\   \cline{3-5}
% LNE-             &             & 25~km            & 150ps          \\   \cline{3-4}
% SYRTE            & France      & 125~km           & 2.5ns          \\   \cline{3-4}
%                  &             & 4x125~km         & 2.5ns          \\   \hline
% NIST             & USA         & $<$10~km         & $<$200ps    \\   \hline
% NLP              & UK          & 2x80~km          & $<$1ns         \\   \hline
%                  &             & 50~km            & 800ps $\pm$56ps\\   \cline{3-4}
% INRIM            & Italy       & 70~km            & 610ps $\pm$47ps\\   \hline
% %                 & 400~km           &                &                     \\   \hline
% 
% \end{tabular}
% \end{table}
% 
% \end{columns}
% 
% \end{frame}
% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \begin{frame}{Time \& frequency transfer}
% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \begin{columns}[c]
%   \column{.4\textwidth}
% 
%   \begin{itemize}\small
%     \item Not very useful in scientific installations
%     \item Widely used/evaluated by National Time Laboratories
%     \item Evaluated by Deutche Telecom
%     
%   \end{itemize} 
% 
% 
%   
%     \column{.7\textwidth}
% \includegraphics<1>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/DT.png}\\\tiny
% From ISPCS keynote "Highly Accurate Time Dissemintation and Network Synchronization" by Helmut Imlau, 
% 
% \end{columns}
% 
% \end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \subsection{Time-based control}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Time-based control}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}
    \includegraphics<1>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/CERN/Determinism+synchronization-1.jpg}
    \includegraphics<2>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/CERN/Determinism+synchronization-2.jpg}
    \includegraphics<3>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/CERN/Determinism+synchronization-3.jpg}
    \includegraphics<4>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/CERN/Determinism+synchronization-4.jpg}
\end{center}
\end{frame}


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Time-based control - example application}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{columns}[c]
  \column{.65\textwidth}
  \begin{itemize} \small
  \item<1-> GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Germany
  \item<2-> 1-5 ns accuracy and 10 ps precision
  \item<3-> WR network at GSI:
  \begin{itemize}\footnotesize
    \item Current: 134 nodes \& 32 switches (operational since June 2018)
    \item Final: 2000 WR nodes \& 300 switches in 5 layers
  \end{itemize}
  \end{itemize} 
    
  \column{.5\textwidth} 
    \begin{center}
      \includegraphics[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/gsi.pdf}
    \end{center}
  \end{columns}

\end{frame}

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \subsection{Precise timestamping}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Precise timestamping}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{columns}[c]
  \column{.65\textwidth}
\textcolor{white}{dddd dsaf asd fasd fdsa fads f dsa fdsa f dsaf dsa fdsa f dsaf dsaf fds}
  \begin{itemize} \small
  \item<1-> Association of time with
  \begin{itemize}\footnotesize
    \item an event
    \item a sample (measured value)
  \end{itemize}
  \item<2-> The most widely used WR application
  \begin{itemize}\footnotesize
    \item<3-> Time-of-flight measurement
    \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
      \item<4-> Speed of neutrinos - CNGS
      \item<5-> Types of particles - ProtoDUNE
    \end{itemize}
    \item<6-> Cosmic ray and neutrino detection
    \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
      \item<7-> Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory
      \item<8-> Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope
      \item<9-> Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy
    \end{itemize}
    \item<10-> German Stock Exchange
  \end{itemize}

  \end{itemize} 
    
  \column{.5\textwidth} 
    \begin{center}
      \includegraphics<1-2>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/timestamping.jpg}
      \includegraphics<4>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/cngs-timing-31.pdf}
      \includegraphics<5>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/ProtoDUNE.png}
      \includegraphics<7>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/lhaaso.pdf}
      \includegraphics<8>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/KM3NeT.pdf}
      \includegraphics<9>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/TAIGA-1.jpg}
      \includegraphics<10>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/GermanStockExchange.jpg}

    \end{center}
  \end{columns}

\end{frame}


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \subsection{Trigger distribution}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Trigger distribution}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
 \begin{center}\vspace{-0.2cm}
    \includegraphics[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/CERN/WRTD.jpg}
 \end{center}

\end{frame}

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Trigger distribution - example applications}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
 \begin{center}\vspace{-0.2cm}\small
    LHC trigger distribution to measure beam instabilities - since 2016\\
    \includegraphics[width=0.7\textwidth]{applications/LIST.jpg}
 \end{center}
 \begin{center}
    \pause\small
     WRXI - White Rabbit eXtensions for Instrumentation - to replace CERN’s Open Analog Signals Information System (OASIS)
\end{center}
\end{frame}

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \subsection{Fixed-latency data transfer}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Fixed-latency data transfer}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

 \begin{center}\vspace{-0.2cm}
    \includegraphics<1>[width=1.0\textwidth]{applications/Fixed-latency.jpg}
 \end{center}

\end{frame}

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Fixed-latency data transfer- example application}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}
Distribution of magnetic field in CERN accelerators
\end{center}

\begin{center}\vspace{-0.2cm}
    \includegraphics<1>[height=0.6\textwidth]{applications/CERN/btrain-1.jpg}
\end{center}

\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \subsection{Radio-frequency transfer}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Radio-frequency transfer}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{columns}[c]
	\column{1.1\textwidth}
\begin{center}\vspace{-0.5cm}
    \includegraphics<1>[width=1.05\textwidth]{applications/DDS-0.jpg}
    \includegraphics<2>[width=1.05\textwidth]{applications/DDS-1.jpg}
 \end{center}
\column{0.05\textwidth}
\end{columns}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Radio-frequency transfer - example application}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
 \begin{center}\vspace{-0.2cm}
    \includegraphics[height=0.4\textwidth]{applications/ESRF.jpg}
    \includegraphics[height=0.4\textwidth]{applications/ESRF-pic.png}
 \end{center}\small
 \begin{itemize}\footnotesize
  \item RF over WR at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)
    \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
    \item A prototype tested in operation: $<$10 ps jitter
    \end{itemize}
 \item RF over WR at CERN
    \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
    \item A prototype: $<$100 fs jitter and $<$10 ps accuracy
    \end{itemize}
  \end{itemize}
 
\end{frame}
 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{WR performance in a long chain}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{WR performance in a long chain}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{measurements/cascadeMeasurement.pdf}

\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{Improvements in a nutshell}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Performance Enhancements}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
 \begin{itemize}\footnotesize
 \item<1-> Jitter and clock stability
 \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
   \item Triggered by National Laboratories and RF distribution
   \item Allan deviation (ADEV) from 1e-11 to \textbf{1e-12} over 1~s
   \item Random jitter from 11 to \textbf{1.1~ps RMS} (1~Hz to 100~kHz)
   \item Ongong work to achieve jitter of \textbf{sub-100~fs RMS} (100~Hz to 20~MHz)
 \end{itemize}
 \item<2-> Compensation of hardware temperature variation
 \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
   \item Triggered by cosmic ray detectors
   \item Active correction of hardware temperature variation
   \item Pk-pk variation from 700~ps to \textbf{$<$150 ps with sdev $<$50~ps (-10 to 50$^o$C)}
 \end{itemize}
 \item<3-> Long-haul link
 \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
   \item Triggered by National Time Labs and Radio Telescope
   \item \textbf{Sub-ns} is achievable on links on \textbf{up to 80~km}
   \item \textbf{$<$100ps on 2x100~km} bidirectional \& \textbf{$\pm$2.5~ns on 950~km} unidirectional links
 \end{itemize}
 \item<4-> Link asymmetry correction
 \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
   \item Triggered by radio telescope (Square Kilometre Array)
   \item At 1310/1490~nm, temp variation -0.12 ps/km/K (3ns for 80~km over 50$^o$C)
   \item \textbf{Sub-ns for 80~km over 50$^o$C} using DWDM SFP on ITU channels C21/C22 (1560.61/1558.98~nm)
 \end{itemize}
 \item<5-> Absolute calibration
 \end{itemize}

\end{frame}

\section{Improvements in depth}
\subsection{}
\begin{frame}{Performance limits and improvements}

    \begin{center}
    \includegraphics<1>[width=\textwidth]{misc/inaccuracy-sources.jpg}
    \includegraphics<2>[width=\textwidth]{misc/inaccuracy-sources-fixed-delays.jpg}
    \end{center}

\end{frame}

\begin{frame}{Hardware asymmetry compensation}
%  \begin{center}\vspace{-0.3cm}
%    \includegraphics<1-2>[height=2.3cm]{misc/inaccuracy-sources-fixed-delays.jpg}
%    \includegraphics<3>[height=2.3cm]{protocol/bitslide.jpg}
%    \includegraphics<4->[height=2.3cm]{misc/inaccuracy-sources-fixed-delays.jpg}
%    \end{center}
\begin{columns}[c]
    \column{0.65\textwidth}\vspace{-0.5cm}
      \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
         \item<1-> \textbf{PCB, FPGA, SFP} -- hardware delay uncertainty
         \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
           \item Calibration uncertainty: sdev of 2~ps [8]
           \item Linear dependency on temperature\\ (700~ps over $-10..55^oC$ [7]):
           \begin{itemize}\tiny
             \item CuteWR: tx $-8.4~ps/K$, rx $13.3~ps/K$ [7]
             \item Switch: 8~ps/K [8]
             \item WR-Zen: 4~ps/K [8]
           \end{itemize}
           \item Remedy: active compensation \\(for LHASSO, 50ps over $-10..55^oC$ [7])
%            \item SFP delay dependency on input power, error up to 30ps [2]
         \end{itemize}
         \item<2-> \textbf{Bitslide} -- measurement uncertainty
         \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
           \item Measured each time link goes up
           \item Value provided by transceiver in FPGA
           \item Error: $\approx\pm$50~ps for GTX (Virtex 6)
           \item Remedy: ensure bitslide is zero \\(ongoing work at CERN)
         \end{itemize}
    \end{itemize}

  \column{0.5\textwidth}
 \begin{center}
   \includegraphics<2>[width=\textwidth]{protocol/bitslide.jpg}
   \includegraphics<1>[width=\textwidth]{measurements/fixed-delays-temp-dependency.jpg}\\
   \tiny
   \textcolor<2>{white}{Figure source: [7]}
   \end{center}
\end{columns}

\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Performance limits and improvements}

    \begin{center}
    \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{misc/inaccuracy-sources-variable-delays.jpg}
    \end{center}
    \begin{center}
    \pause
    $\alpha = \frac{\nu_g(\lambda_S)}{\nu_g(\lambda_M)} -1  = \frac{\delta_{MS} - \delta_{SM}}{\delta_{SM}}$\\\vspace{0.2cm}
    $\delta_{ms}~ = \frac{1 + \alpha}{2 + \alpha} \, (RTT - \sum \Delta - \sum \epsilon)$
    \end{center}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Medium asymmetry compensation}
%  \begin{center}\vspace{-0.3cm}
%    \includegraphics[height=2.3cm]{misc/inaccuracy-sources-variable-delays.jpg}
%    \end{center}
\begin{columns}[c]
    \column{0.71\textwidth}\vspace{-0.5cm}
    \textcolor{white}{dddd\\dddd}
        \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
          \item<1-> \textbf{SFP} -- tx wavelength 
          \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
            \item<2-> IEEE802.3ah allows nominal value departures\\(10nm at 1490nm, 50nm at 1310nm)
            \item<3-> Linear dependency on SFP temp:
            \begin{itemize}\tiny
              \item 1310nm: $0.4~~\sim0.5~~nm/K$ \textcolor<1-3>{white}{$\Rightarrow$ $~~~0.11 ps/(K \cdot km)$ [7]}
              \item 1490nm: $0.09\sim0.12 nm/K$  \textcolor<1-3>{white}{$\Rightarrow$ $-0.51 ps/(K \cdot km)$ [7]}
              \item 1550nm: ~~~~~~~~~$\approx0.1~~nm/K$  \textcolor<1-3>{white}{$\Rightarrow$ $~~~1.7~~ps/(K \cdot km)$ [8]}
            \end{itemize}
%             \begin{itemize}\tiny
%               \item 1310nm: $0.4\sim0.5 nm/K$ (AXGE-1254 SFP) [6]
%               \item 1490nm: $0.09\sim0.12 nm/K$ (AXGE-3454 SFP) [6]
%               \item 1550nm: $\approx0.1 nm/K$ [7]
%             \end{itemize}
%             \begin{itemize}\tiny
%               \item 1310nm: $0.4\sim0.5 nm/K$, for G.652.D fiber: $0.11 ps/(K \cdot km)$ [6]
%               \item 1490nm: $0.09\sim0.12 nm/K$, for G.652.D fiber: $-0.51 ps/(K \cdot km)$ [6]
%               \item 1550nm: $0.1 nm/K$, for G.652.D fiber:$1.7ps/(K \cdot km)$ [7]
%             \end{itemize}
%             \item<4-> SFP temp-dependency for G652.D fiber:
%             \begin{itemize}\tiny
%               \item 1310nm: $0.11 ps/(K \cdot km)$ [6]
%               \item 1490nm: $-0.51 ps/(K \cdot km)$ [6]
%               \item 1550nm: $1.7ps/(K \cdot km)$ [7]
%             \end{itemize}

          \end{itemize}
          \item<5-> \textbf{Fiber} -- chromatic dispersion 
          \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
            \item Linear dependency on fiber temp:
            \begin{itemize}\tiny
              \item G.652.D at 1310/1490: $-0.2 ~~ps/(K\cdot km)$ [7]
              \item G.652.D at 1310/1490: $-0.12 ps/(K\cdot km)$ [7]
              \item G.652.D at 1490/1550: $-0.05 ps/(K\cdot km)$ [8]
             \end{itemize}
          \end{itemize}
          \item<6-> Significant for links $>10~km$ 
          \item<7-> Remedy: temp-stabilized laser, accurate and close wavelengths (C21/C23@1560.61/1558.98nm, SKA [8])
        \end{itemize}
\textcolor{white}{dddd\\dddd\\dddd\\dddd}
  \column{0.45\textwidth}
 \begin{center}\vspace{-0.5cm}
   \includegraphics<4>[width=0.8\textwidth]{measurements/sfp-temp-dependence.jpg}
   \includegraphics<5>[width=\textwidth]{measurements/fiber-temp-dependency.jpg}
%    \includegraphics<5->[width=\textwidth]{applications/SKA-DWDM.jpg}
   \includegraphics<6->[width=\textwidth]{measurements/PBowen-link-errors.jpg}\textcolor{white}{d}\\
    \textcolor<1-3,5->{white}{\tiny Figure source: [7]}\\
    \textcolor<1-4>{white}{\tiny Figure source: [8]}
%    \tiny\pause\pause\pause
%    Figure source: [1]
   \end{center}
\end{columns}

\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Frequency transfer}
 \begin{center}\vspace{-0.3cm}
   \includegraphics[height=2.3cm]{misc/inaccuracy-sources-freq-transfer.jpg}\\
   \includegraphics<2>[width=.95\textwidth]{switch/wrs_v3_3_clocking_with_bandwidth.png}
  \end{center}

\end{frame}

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Frequency transfer}
%  \begin{center}\vspace{-0.3cm}
%    \includegraphics[height=2.3cm]{misc/inaccuracy-sources-freq-transfer.jpg}
%    \end{center}
\begin{columns}[c]
    \column{0.6\textwidth}\vspace{-0.5cm}
     \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
          \item<1-> \textbf{DDMTD}
          \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
            \item Flicker PM noise: -100 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz
            \begin{itemize}\tiny
             \item Dominant $<$ 10~Hz, 
             \item MDEV 4E-13 at $\tau=1~s$
             \item LVDS input clock buffer and clock routing
            \end{itemize}
            \item White PM noise: -108 dBc/Hz
            \begin{itemize}\tiny
              \item Limits the phase noise to -108 dBc/Hz
              \item Thermal, DFF meta-stability, noise due to aliasing
            \end{itemize}
            \item<2-> Stability at $\tau$=1s better on\\ Kintex-7 (28nm) \& Kintex US (20nm)
          \end{itemize}
          \item<3-> \textbf{GTX} 
          \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
            \item Flicker PM noise: -100 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz
            \item White PM noise: -106 dBc/Hz\\ MDEV 4E-13 at $\tau=1~s$ 
          \end{itemize}
          \item<4-> Remedy: none, inherent to technology
        \end{itemize}
  \column{0.5\textwidth}
  \begin{center}\vspace{-0.5cm}
  \includegraphics<1>[width=.99\textwidth]{measurements/DDMTD-noise.jpg}
  \includegraphics<2>[width=.99\textwidth]{measurements/DDMTD-future-tech-noise.jpg}

   \end{center}
\end{columns}\vspace{0.1cm}
 \begin{center}
\tiny NOTE: Carrier is 10~MHz\\
\tiny All above data is based on [14]
\end{center}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}{Frequency transfer}
%  \begin{center}\vspace{-0.3cm}
%    \includegraphics[height=2.3cm]{misc/inaccuracy-sources-freq-transfer.jpg}
%    \end{center}
\vspace{0.5cm}
\begin{columns}[c]
    \column{0.67\textwidth}\vspace{-0.5cm}
        \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
          \item<1-> Accumulation of phase noise in lower frequencies
          \item<2-> \textbf{VCXO} - Boundary Clock only
          \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
            \item Phase noise leaking from the local oscillator
            \item Instabilities induced by cooling airflow
            \item Remedy: increase bandwidth (see [15]) or better oscillator (see daughterboard [16])
          \end{itemize}
          \item<3->\textbf{External reference input} - Grandmaster only
          \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
            \item Noisy internal Virtex-6 MMCM PLL
            \item Large phase noise power at 10kHz to 2~MHz
            \item Phase noise above DDMTD Nyquist (1.9~kHz) bandwidth folds back to baseband [14]
            \item Remedy: external PLL to synthesize 62.5~MHz from 10MHz (see daughterboard [16])
          \end{itemize}


        \end{itemize}%\vspace{-0.2cm}
    \begin{table}[ht]
    \centering
    \tiny
    \begin{tabular}{|l |       c        |     c          |   c         |     c       | c          |  }     \hline \tiny
    \textbf{Meas.}                      &  \multicolumn{5}{|c|}{\textbf{Allan Deviation (ADEV)}}     \\ \cline{2-6}
    \textbf{at}        & $\tau$=0.01 s  & $\tau$=0.1 s   & $\tau$=1 s  & $\tau$=10 s & $\tau$=100 s      \\ \cline{2-6}
                       &    [s]         &    [s]         &   [s]       &  [s]        & [s]               \\ \hline
    GM                 &    9.2e-10     &  1.3e-10       & 1.3e-11     &  1.3e-12    & 1.3e-13      \\ \hline
    SW 1               &    7.4e-10     &  1.6e-10       & 1.9e-11     &  1.9e-12    & 1.9e-13           \\ \cline{1-6}
    SW 2               &    6.9e-10     &  2.1e-10       & 2.7e-11     &  2.6e-12    & 2.6e-13           \\ \cline{1-6}
    \end{tabular}
%     \caption{Allan Deviation, equivalent noise bandwidth of 50Hz.}
    \label{tab:adev}
    \end{table}%\vspace{-0.3cm}
  \column{0.5\textwidth}
  \begin{center}\vspace{-0.5cm}\vspace{0.5cm}
  \includegraphics<1-2>[width=.99\textwidth]{measurements/phase_noise_v3_4.pdf}
  \includegraphics<3>[width=0.98\textwidth]{switch/mmcm_noise2.jpg}
  \includegraphics<4>[width=.99\textwidth]{measurements/phase_noise_v3_4.pdf}
  \includegraphics<5>[width=.45\textheight, angle=90]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/rsz_3d_image__1_.jpg}  \textcolor{white}{dddd\\dddd}
\tiny
    \begin{table}[!ht]
    \centering
    \tiny
    \begin{tabular}{|       l            |          c          |         c          |     c     |}           \hline \tiny
    \textbf{Meas.}  & \multicolumn{3}{|c|}{\textbf{RMS jitter}}                     \\ \cline{2-4}
    \textbf{at}        & \textbf{1Hz-10Hz}   & \textbf{1Hz-2kHz}   & \textbf{1Hz-100kHz} \\ \hline
    GM                 &       4.7~ps         &     9.0~ps          & 9.1~ps              \\ \hline
    SW 1               &       7.1~ps         &     11.0~ps         & 11.0~ps             \\ \cline{1-4}
    SW 2               &       8.8~ps         &     14.0~ps         & 14.0~ps             \\ \hline
    \end{tabular}
%     \caption{Integrated RMS jitter  in different regions of the spectrum.}
    \label{tab:phaseNoise}
    \end{table}%\vspace{-0.3cm}
 
   \end{center}
\end{columns}\vspace{-0.5cm}
   \begin{center}
    \tiny Data from [15]
    \end{center}

\end{frame}


  
\begin{frame}{Test setup for switch with Low Jitter Daughterboard}
  \begin{center}
    \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/rsz_experimental_setup.png}\\
    \tiny See more: [16]
  \end{center}
\end{frame}


% 
% \begin{frame}{Improvements for GM: PM noise and Modified ADEV}
%   \begin{center}
%     \includegraphics[width=.5\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/pn.png}
%     \includegraphics[width=.5\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/mdev.png}
%   \end{center}
% \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
%   \item Jitter improvement: 9ps to $<$2ps RMS 10Hz-100kHz
%   \item ADEV improvement: 1.4E-11 to $<$5E-13 $\tau$=1s ENBW 50Hz
% \end{itemize}
% \end{frame}

\begin{frame}{Switch with LJD: PM noise and Modified ADEV}
\vspace{-0.5cm}
  \begin{center}
    \includegraphics[width=.5\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/GM+BC_pn.jpg}
    \includegraphics[width=.45\textwidth]{measurements/WRSlowJitter/GM+BC_MDEV.jpg}
  \end{center}
\begin{itemize}\scriptsize
  \item Jitter improvement [14, 16]
  \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
    \item GM: 9~ps to 1~ps RMS 1~Hz--100~kHz
    \item BC: 11~ps to $<2$~ps RMS 1~Hz--100~kHz
  \end{itemize}
  \item MDEV improvement [14, 16]
  \begin{itemize}\scriptsize
    \item GM: 2E-12 to $<$5E-13 $\tau$=1~s ENBW 50Hz
    \item BC: 4E-12 to $<$7E-13 $\tau$=1~s ENBW 50Hz
  \end{itemize}

\end{itemize}
\end{frame}

% 
% \begin{frame}{RF over WR a.k.a. Distributed DDS [20]}
%   \begin{center}
%     \includegraphics[width=\columnwidth]{applications/remote_dds.pdf}
%   \end{center}
%   \begin{block}{Distributed Direct Digital Synthesis}
%     \begin{itemize}
%     \item Replaces dozens of cables with a single fiber
%     \item Works over big distances without degrading signal quality
%     \item Can provide various clocks with a single, standard link
%     \item At CERN, ongoing work to distribute 200 MHz RF with 0.25ps RMS jitter and $\pm$10ps accuracy
%     \end{itemize}
%   \end{block}
% \end{frame}
% 
% \begin{frame}{Distributed oscilloscope [21]}
%  \begin{center}
%    \includegraphics[width=0.9\textwidth]{applications/distr_oscill.pdf}
%    \end{center}
%    \begin{block}{}
%      \begin{itemize}
%      \item Common clock in entire network: no skew between ADCs
%      \item External triggers can be time tagged with a TDC and used to reconstruct the original time base in the operator's PC
%      \item Ability to sample with different clocks via Distributed DDS
%      \end{itemize}
%    \end{block}
% \end{frame}

\backupend

\end{document}